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Filed Under (Cabling) by 5C6bgX on 22-01-2019

Submitted by: Jennifer Cheek

Question: 1

Which three statements are true about the operation of a full-duplex Ethernet network? (Choose three.)

A. There are no collisions in full-duplex mode.

B. A dedicated switch port is required for each full-duplex node.

C. Ethernet hub ports are preconfigured for full-duplex mode.

D. In a full-duplex environment, the host network card must check for the availability of the network media before transmitting.

E. The host network card and the switch port must be capable of operating in full-duplex mode.

Answer: A, B, E


Half-duplex Ethernet is defined in the original 802.3 Ethernet and Cisco says you only use one wire pair with a digital signal running in both directions on the wire. It also uses the CSMA/CD protocol to help prevent collisions and to permit retransmitting if a collision does occur. If a hub is attached to a switch, it must operate in half-duplex mode because the end stations must be able to detect collisions. Half-duplex Ethernettypically 10BaseTis only about 30 to 40 percent efficient as Cisco sees it, because a large 10BaseT network will usually only give you 3- to 4Mbpsat most.

Full-duplex Ethernet uses two pairs of wires, instead of one wire pair like half duplex. Also, full duplex uses a point-to-point connection between the transmitter of the transmitting device and the receiver of the receiving device, which means that with full-duplex data transfer, you get a faster data transfer compared to half duplex. And because the transmitted data is sent on a different set of wires than the received data, no collisions occur. The reason you dont need to worry about collisions is because now Full-duplex Ethernet is like a freeway with multiple lanes instead of the single-lane road provided by half duplex. Full-duplex Ethernet is supposed to offer 100 percent efficiency in both directions; this means you can get 20Mbps with a 10Mbps Ethernet running full duplex, or 200Mbps for FastEthernet.

Question: 2


On the left are various network protocols. On the right are the layers of the TCP/IP model. Assuming a reliable connection is required, move the protocols on the left to the TCP/IP layers on the right to show the proper encapsulation for an email message sent by a host on a LAN. (Not all options are used.)


Question: 3

Which OSI layer header contains the address of a destination host that is on another network?

A. application

B. session

C. transport

D. network

E. data link

F. physical

Answer: D


Only network address contains this information. To transmit the packets the sender uses network address and datalink address. But the layer 2 address represents just the address of the next hop device on the way to the sender. It is changed on each hop. Network address remains the same.

Question: 4

Which layer of the TCP/IP stack combines the OSI model physical and data link layers?

A. Internet laye

B. transport laye

C. application laye

D. network access laye

Answer: D


The Internet Protocol Suite, TCP/IP, is a suite of protocols used for communication over the internet. The TCP/ IP model was created after the OSI 7 layer model for two major reasons. First, the foundation of the Internet was built using the TCP/IP suite and through the spread of the World Wide Web and Internet, TCP/IP has been preferred. Second, a project researched by the Department of Defense (DOD) consisted of creating the TCP/IP protocols. The DOD’s goal was to bring international standards which could not be met by the OSI model.

Since the DOD was the largest software consumer and they preferred the TCP/IP suite, most vendors used this model rather than the OSI. Below is a side by side comparison of the TCP/IP and OSI models.

Question: 5

Which protocol uses a connection-oriented service to deliver files between end systems?





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Answer: C


TCP is an example of a connection-oriented protocol. It requires a logical connection to be established between the two processes before data is exchanged. The connection must be maintained during the entire time that communication is taking place, then released afterwards. The process is much like a telephone call, where a virtual circuit is established–the caller must know the person’s telephone number and the phone must be answered–before the message can be delivered.

TCP/IP is also a connection-oriented transport with orderly release. With orderly release, any data remaining in the buffer is sent before the connection is terminated. The release is accomplished in a three-way handshake between client and server processes. The connection-oriented protocols in the OSI protocol suite, on the other hand, do not support orderly release. Applications perform any handshake necessary for ensuring orderly release.

Examples of services that use connection-oriented transport services are telnet, rlogin, and ftp.

Question: 6

Refer to the exhibit.

If the hubs in the graphic were replaced by switches, what would be virtually eliminated?

A. broadcast domains

B. repeater domains

C. Ethernet collisions

D. signal amplification

E. Ethernet broadcasts

Answer: C


Modern wired networks use a network switch to eliminate collisions. By connecting each device directly to a port on the switch, either each port on a switch becomes its own collision domain (in the case of half duplex links) or the possibility of collisions is eliminated entirely in the case of full duplex links.

Question: 7

Refer to the exhibit.

If host A sends an IP packet to host B, what will the source physical address be in the frame when it reaches host B?



C. A1:A1:A1:A1:A1:A1

D. B2:B2:B2:B2:B2:B2

E. C3:C3:C3:C3:C3:C3

F. D4:D4:D4:D4:D4:D4

Answer: E


When packets transfer from one host to another across a routed segment, the source IP address always remains the same source IP address, and the source physical (MAC) address will be the existing routers interface address. Similarly, the destination IP address always remains the same and the destination physical (MAC) address is the destination routers interface address.

Question: 8

Refer to the exhibit.

HostX is transferring a file to the FTP server. Point A represents the frame as it goes toward the Toronto router. What will the Layer 2 destination address be at this point?

A. abcd.1123.0045


C. aabb.5555.2222


E. abcd.2246.0035

Answer: E


For packets destined to a host on another IP network, the destination MAC address will be the LAN interface of the router. Since the FTP server lies on a different network, the host will know to send the frame to its default gateway, which is Toronto.

Question: 9

Which network device functions only at Layer 1 of the OSI model?

A. Option A

B. Option B

C. Option C

D. Option D

E. Option E

Answer: B


Most hubs are amplifying the electrical signal; therefore, they are really repeaters with several ports. Hubs and repeaters are Layer 1 (physical layer) devices.

Question: 10

Refer to the exhibit.

The host in Kiev sends a request for an HTML document to the server in Minsk. What will be the source IP address of the packet as it leaves the Kiev router?







Answer: E


Although the source and destination MAC address will change as a packet traverses a network, the source and destination IP address will not unless network address translation (NAT) is being done, which is not the case here.

Question: 11

Refer to the exhibit.

As packets travel from Mary to Robert, which three devices will use the destination MAC address of the packet to determine a forwarding path? (Choose three.)

A. Hub1

B. Switch1

C. Router1

D. Switch2

E. Router2

F. Switch3

Answer: B, D, F


Switches use the destination MAC address information for forwarding traffic, while routers use the destination IP address information.

Local Area Networks employ Layer 2 Switches and Bridges to forward and filter network traffic. Switches and Bridges operate at the Data Link Layer of the Open System Interconnect Model (OSI). Since Switches and Bridges operate at the Layer 2 they operate more intelligently than hubs, which work at Layer 1 (Physical Layer) of the OSI. Because the switches and bridges are able to listen to the traffic on the wire to examine the source and destination MAC address. Being able to listen to the traffic also allows the switches and bridges to compile a MAC address table to better filter and forward network traffic.

To accomplish the above functions switches and bridges carry out the following tasks:

MAC address learning by a switch or a bridge is accomplished by the same method. The switch or bridge listens to each device connected to each of its ports and scan the incoming frame for the source MAC address. This creates a MAC address to port map that is cataloged in the switches/bridge MAC database. Another name for the MAC address table is content addressable memory or CAM table.

When a switch or bridge is listening to the network traffic, it receives each frame and compares it to the MAC address table. By checking the MAC table the switch/ bridge are able o determine which port the frame came in on. If the frame is on the MAC table the frame is filtered or transmitted on only that port. If the switch determines that the frame is not on the MAC table, the frame is forwarded out to all ports except the incoming port.

Question: 12

Refer to the exhibit.

Mary is sending an instant message to Robert. The message will be broken into a series of packets that will traverse all network devices. What addresses will populate these packets as they are forwarded from Router1 to Router2?

A. Option A

B. Option B

C. Option C

D. Option D

E. Option E

Answer: B


The Source and Destination IP address is not going to change. Host 1 IP address will stay as being the source IP and the Host 2 IP address will stay the destination IP address. Those two are not going to change.

For the MAC address it is going to change each time it goes from one hope to another. (Except switches… they don’t change anything)

Frame leaving HOST 1 is going to have a source MAC of Host 1 and a destination MAC of Router 1.

Router 1 is going to strip that info off and then will make the source MAC address of Router1’s exiting interface, and making Router2’s interface as the destination MAC address.

Then the same will happen… Router2 is going to change the source/destination info to the source MAC being the Router2 interface that it is going out, and the destination will be Host2’s MAC address.

Question: 13

Refer to the exhibit.

A network device needs to be installed in the place of the icon labeled Network Device to accommodate a leased line attachment to the Internet. Which network device and interface configuration meets the minimum requirements for this installation?

A. a router with two Ethernet interfaces

B. a switch with two Ethernet interfaces

C. a router with one Ethernet and one serial interface

D. a switch with one Ethernet and one serial interface

E. a router with one Ethernet and one modem interface

Answer: C


Only a router can terminate a leased line attachment access circuit, and only a router can connect two different IP networks. Here, we will need a router with two interfaces, one serial connection for the line attachment and one Ethernet interface to connect to the switch on the LAN.

Question: 14

Which transport layer protocol provides best-effort delivery service with no acknowledgment receipt required?




D. Telnet


Answer: E


UDP provides a connectionless datagram service that offers best-effort delivery, which means that UDP does not guarantee delivery or verify sequencing for any datagrams. A source host that needs reliable communication must use either TCP or a program that provides its own sequencing and acknowledgment services.

Question: 15

Which layer of the OSI model controls the reliability of communications between network devices using flow control, sequencing and acknowledgments?

A. Physical

B. Data-link

C. Transport

D. Network

Answer: C


About the Author: Test Information:Total Questions: 239Test Number: 100-105Vendor Name: CISCOCert Name: CCNATest Name: Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1Official Site:


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Understanding Epilepsy}

Filed Under (Cabling) by 5C6bgX on 02-12-2018

Understanding Epilepsy


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Stacey Moore

There could be good news for the more than 3 million Americans currently diagnosed with epilepsy and the millions more who may be someday.

Efforts to cure and raise awareness about the condition are getting a big boost from some big names. The disease is characterized by seizures; that is, a change in sensation, awareness or behavior brought about by a brief electrical disturbance in the brain. Seizures vary from a momentary disruption of the senses, to short periods of unconsciousness or staring spells, to convulsions.Doctors treat epilepsy primarily with seizure-preventing medicines. However, surgery, diet or electrical implants may also be used for treatment.Among the famous names who want to help are:• Amy Lee, the lead singer of the rock group Evanescence. She has a brother with epilepsy and she’s partnering with the Epilepsy Foundation in an “Out of the Shadows” campaign.• Senator John McCain. His father lived with seizures, a symptom of epilepsy, so now the senator is helping to further epilepsy awareness through public service announcements. • U.S. Women’s Ice Hockey goaltender and bronze medalist Chanda Gunn. Diagnosed with epilepsy when she was 9, Gunn helps teach others about the disease. • Alan Faneca, guard for the Pittsburgh Steelers. He has epilepsy and supports various epilepsy-related organizations. • Greg Grunberg. Best known for his television roles on “Felicity,” “Alias” and NBC’s new hit show “Heroes,” he’s national chair for the first-ever National Walk for Epilepsy, in support of his son. “It is such an honor to participate in any way we can to raise awareness in the fight against epilepsy,” Grunberg said. “To be able to march on Washington with those directly affected and their families lets our family know we are not alone.” The National Walk for Epilepsy takes place on March 31, 2007 on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. It is expected to draw 5,000 walkers and raise $1 million to support programs to eliminate stigma and raise awareness of epilepsy. • You. Anyone can join these celebrities and many others by supporting epilepsy research.

See www.OutoftheShadows.com.

Visit www.WalkforEpilepsy.org for details about the fundraiser or EpilepsyFoundation.org for patient and caregiver information. Greg Grunberg of the new hit show “Heroes” is trying to raise money for epilepsy research.

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Filed Under (Cabling) by 5C6bgX on 10-09-2017

Submitted by: Rudy Ferlenda

The summer a long time about 1940 saw World War II is available for more information about the English air as the RAF bravely stand all the way to learn more about going to be the onslaught to do with Hitler’s Luftwaffe. Immediately following a multi function time to do with a period of time stated to educate yourself regarding as the ‘Phoney War’, Hitler had ordered his forces to invade various European ethnicities and there was hardly any opposition all over the Belgium, Netherlands or even France.

Operation Dynamo had have you heard approximately 300,000 a male concerning going to be the BEF attracted to educate yourself regarding safety by a multi function flotilla about fishing boats making going to be the from all the backwards and forwards England for more information about Dunkirk upwards of lots of days. So right now Hitler had her or his neat places to see throughout the England. The white precipices regarding Dover are actually clearly high profile as the German High Command searched past going to be the English Channel both to and from Calais.

However,so much that the heavens a lot more than England have been completely at less than German command, Hitler wasn’t able for additional details on authorise Operation Sealion – going to be the invasion regarding United Kingdom. With America being that they are reluctant for more information regarding take part as part of your war at pretty much everything stage and him or her Allies vanquished, Great Britain would be that the are going to want to educate yourself regarding face the Germans all around the it’s own.

Could Britain always keep on the town to the point where the summer was above what when the weather is the factthat the thwart going to be the Germans from crossing going to be the Channel? British dreams was in your hands to do with going to be the brave pilots about going to be the Royal Air Force, “The Few” as Churchill later discussed to educate yourself regarding them. It wasn’t all it requires British airmen as part of your RAF,going to be the Commonwealth was represented to have jet pilots from ould array relating to colonial outposts like as South Africa and Rhodesia as if that’s the case as Poles and for instance a multi function couple of Americans.

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Hitler sent by mail going to be the Luftwaffe more than for more information on hammer UK into submission but bear in mind crucially, their boxer escorts among the more had the gas as well as among the most a couple of minutes combat before they is usually that the have to are preoccupied back leaving going to be the bombers unsecured For going to be the planning some time going to be the Luftwaffe came entirely against business resistance and there was online big event repeat relating to their a quick victories everywhere over the the Continent. Britain’s airfields in your south east have been having to deal with a multi functional beating so much that one or more night all over the August 1940,a multi function German bomber having got unsure and thrown out its bombs around London before heading a fresh one In retaliation,the RAF fired an air raid on Berlin.

Hitler was livid and instructed her or his bombers to learn more about bombard London all over the place of going to be the Royal Air Force airfields. This was a multi function pivotal cornering point as it captivated going to be the RAF many of the much in the way phoned as well as for respite. The German Air Force was unable to learn more about achieve going to be the initiative at ost point and all around the medial September, Hitler indefinitely postponed Operation Sealion. The threat regarding attack was gone and Churchill chatted of going to be the contribution of Fighter Command all over the a famous tone of voice “Never as part of your line of business having to do with human conflict has and thus much in the way recently been belonging judging by thereby many to learn more about as a consequence few”.

The number more then one boxer ace was Sgt Frantisek both to and from going to be the Czech Republic so that you have an all in one total having to do with seventeen destroys He piloted a Hawker Hurricane all of which was going to be the tru workhorse having to do with Fighter Command although almost everyone remembers going to be the legendary Spitfire. Sgt Frantisek was killed throughout the action everywhere in the October 1940.

The Battle relating to Britain was the preparing any other part a period going to be the Germans had pro an all in one military defeat all over the World War II.

Victory in the Battle having to do with Britain allowed Britain and your ex Allies would be carry all around the so that you have World War II against Nazi Germany.

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